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From the language of the machine to the simulation of the human nervous system…. Six generations explain the development of the computer through time

computer generations

The concept of generation in the computer world

This term is used to describe specific types of computers that are similar in all respects to physical equipment and software and produced during a specified period.

Computers belonging to the same generation must have the following characteristics:

the size

Storage capacity

Speed ​​in executing and accessing operations

The first generation “1946-1959”

Vacuum tubes were used in their manufacture

big size

Slow performance and speed

Limited storage capacity

Programming in machine language

An example of this generation is the ENIAC computer, which appeared in 1946 AD

ENIAC computer
ENIAC computer


The second generation (1959-1965)

Transistors were used in their manufacture, which were small in size compared to diodes

It is smaller than the first generation computers

Less consumption of electrical energy

It is faster than the first generation computers

Programmed in assembly language

It has a larger storage capacity than the first generation computers

Examples of this generation are: NCR – 304 – IBM – 1401.

ncr computer
ncr computer


The third generation “1965-1971”

Integrated circuits that have advantages over transistors were used in its manufacture, including “small size – cheap price – light weight.”

Small in size compared to the sizes of previous generations

The operating systems used in them have evolved

It was programmed in high-end languages ​​such as “Pascal Language – FORTRAN Language”.

More storage capacity than previous generations

Examples of computers of this generation are: IBM – 360 – IBM – 370 – NCR – 8000

IBM computer
IBM computer


The fourth generation “1971 – until the early nineties”

Integrated circuits were used in its manufacture

I only started using one processor

Its size is very small compared to the sizes of the generations before it

Its speed in executing operations reached tens of millions of operations per second

The main memory is divided into RAM and ROM

computer 1971
computer 1971


The fifth generation “from the beginning of the nineties”

ULSI integrated circuits were used.

Use optical disks

Use more than one CPU

The emergence of highly developed languages ​​such as simulation languages ​​called artificial intelligence

Evolution in the field of networks

It has multimedia technologies

fifth generation
fifth generation


The sixth generation “We live it now”

Fast data processing, with a data processing speed of 250 trillion operations per second

It’s very small

It has a very high storage capacity

It responds to written and graphic inputs and responds to cues and eye fingerprints

It mimics the human nervous system

sixth generation

More in the Computer Software and Hardware section

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